Specialists in temperature-controlled microscopy and in sample characterization solutions, Linkam Scientific Instruments reports on work from users in Singapore and Swansea to characterize perovskites, a material with increasing numbers of applications in photovoltaics. Linkam is a sponsor of the 2018 International Conference on Perovskite Thin Film Photovoltaics in Rennes, France.
Perovskites have been found to have incredible electric, magnetic and superconducting properties. The flexibility of the bond angles and the ability to incorporate ions allows engineering of different perovskite materials. It is these properties that make perovskites attractive for a variety of different applications in microelectronics and semiconductor research such as photovoltaics.
The accurate temperature control and ability to combine with other analytical techniques, such as Raman microscopy, makes Linkam stages suitable for the study of perovskites. Linkam has been creating sample characterization solutions for the microelectronics and semiconductor field for many years. The company designs stages with accurate temperature control ranging from -196 °C to 1500 °C. The environment within the chamber can also be controlled, with the options of gas purging, controlled vacuum, pressure or humidity. To accommodate for electrical measurements, stages can also be fitted with a variety of electrical output connectors and gold tipped tungsten needle probes.
Examples of this application include work from a group in the College of Engineering at Swansea University, who employ a Linkam RH95 Humidity Generator and THMS600-H stage to conduct in-situ Raman spectroscopy to study the degradation kinetics of perovskite materials when subjected to changes in temperature and humidity. Analysis of Raman peaks in the thermodegradation, and dehydration processes help determine how to improve perovskite performance in future applications.
The paper “Probing the degradation and homogeneity of embedded perovskite semiconducting layers in photovoltaic devices by Raman spectroscopy” was published in the journal Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics.
A Linkam probe stage, the HFS600E-PB4, was used by a team led from the National University of Singapore to study angular momentum states of perovskite materials. Again, the set-up was shown to be suitable for performing low temperature Raman spectroscopy whilst probing the decay of angular momentum states.
The article “Magnetic Modes in Rare Earth Perovskites: A Magnetic-Field-Dependent Inelastic Light Scattering study” was published in Scientific Reports.